APIN-logo _ Astrophysical Institute Neunhof
     Fahne_D  deutsch
Canonical quantization of elementary fields
A solution of the cosmological constant problemy
An inconsistency of quantum field theory, regarding the signs of vacuum energy and vacuum pressure of elementary fields versus non-elementary fields (like e.g. phonon fields), is pointed out. An improved law for the canonical quantization of fields is presented, which is based on the distinction between elementary and non-elementary fields. Remarkably, the improved quantization method removes not only the inconsistency of quantum field theory, but at the same time solves the (old) cosmological constant problem for all fields of the standard model of elementary particles (but not for the hypothetical inflaton fields), without compromising any of the achievements of established quantum field theory.
→ Download the complete article ( pdf, 453 KB )
Zero-Point Energy and Casimir-Effect
The essential arguments for and against the assumption of a physically effective zero-point energy
Since the invention of zero-point energy in 1911, there is some dispute whether it is really detectable in experiments, or merely a strange artifact of the theory. The discussion is traced in a historical perspective, and the essential arguments, which have been cited in support or in refusal of the assumption of zero-point energy, are sketched. The article in particular is focused on the Casimir-effect, which often is considered to be the most convincing evidence for the measurable existence of zero-point energy.
→ Download the complete article ( pdf, 531 KB )
Bell's Theorem
Bell's Theorem is proved by Bell's inequality. The proof of the inequality as published by Peres is presented. To put the Bell stuff into perspective, upfront the incompleteness objection raised by Einstein, Podolski and Rosen, and the related gedanken-experiment proposed by Bohm are discussed.
→ Download the complete article ( pdf, 335 KB )
The Casimir-Effect: No Manifestation of Zero-Point Energy
The attractive force between metallic surfaces, predicted by Casimir in 1948, seems to indicate the physical existence and measurability of the quantized electromagnetic field's zero-point energy. It is shown in this article, that the measurements of that force do not confirm Casimir's model, but in fact disprove it's foundational assumption that metal plates may be represented in the theory by quantum-field-theoretical boundaries. The consequences for the cosmological constant problem are discussed.
→ Download the complete article ( pdf, 344 KB )
The decoherence of the state functions of open quantum systems is known already since the twenties of last century. But only since the seventies it found appropriate attention in the debate about the interpretation of quantum theory. In this letter, the basic concepts for the description of measurements of closed and open quantum systems are derived and compared. Also the “measurement problem of quantum theory” and the “problem of the preferred basis” are discussed in this context. In the last section, the essential properties of projection operators and density operators are evaluated.
→ Download the complete article ( pdf, 437 KB )
The discovery of Bose-Einstein-statistics
Half a century passed inbetween the first appearance of Bose-Einstein-Statistics by 1877 and its completion by 1926. In this article, the historical evolution is traced, and the implications of this quantum statistics for the physical world view is discussed in detail.
This article is written in german.
→ Download the complete article ( german, pdf, 497 KB )
Interaction of 2-level systems and electromagnetic radiation
Rabi-Oscillations, Bloch vectors, and Ramsey fringes
The interaction of quantum mechanical 2-level systems and electromagnetic radiation is outlined in detail. Rabi-oscillations and the dynamics of the Bloch vector are described for coherent and incoherent systems. Eventually we deal with Ramsey interferences and their practical use for precise time measurements by means of atomic clocks.
→ Download the complete article ( pdf, 434 KB )
Robertson’s Derivation of the Indeterminacy Relation
Heisenbergs Relation of Indeterminacy was reformulated with quantitative precision in 1929 by H.P.Robertson.

When Heisenberg introduced the relations of indeterminacy in 1927, he used a description which attached more importance to physical clarity than to mathematical precision. In 1929, Robertson found a more abstract and quantitative exact formulation of the indeterminacy relation.
In this article, we derive Robertson’s formula, and prove it’s validity for arbitrary hermitean operators and arbitrary state functions of quantum theory.
This article is written in german.
→ Download the complete article ( german, pdf, 181 KB )
Quantum Jumps
Planck’s radiation law, and its statistical derivation due to Albert Einstein

Planck found by guessing his law of blackbody radiation, which marks the historical onset of quantum theory, when he analyzed the radiation’s entropy. Einstein found a significantly simpler and clearer access due to statistical analysis of the absorption’s and emission’s equilibrium. We describe and discuss the radiation laws of Rayleigh-Jeans, Planck, and Einstein.
This article is written in german.
→ Download the complete article ( german, pdf, 431 KB )
What the Casimir-effect really is telling about zero-point energy
Casimir predicted an attractive force between metallic surfaces, which according to his model is caused by the zero-point oscillations of the quantized electromagnetic field. Following a suggestion by Casimir, we assume in this article that the reflection spectra of metals are at least approximately identical for the reflection of photons and the reflection of zero-point oscillations. It is shown that this assumption turns Casimir's argument to the exact opposite: The observed Casimir-force positively proves, that the electromagnetic field's zero-point energy does not exert forces onto metallic surfaces, if that assumption on reflectivity should be correct. We add reasons for the assertion, that Casimir's assumption on reflectivity is probably wrong, and that an improved assumption is still disproving Casimir's model.
→ Download the complete article ( pdf, 391 KB )
Circulars I
Circulars II
Circulars III
Quantum Phenomena
Field Theory